News Round-Up: RK Studios Sale, Kriti and Rishi Both Have Films Postponed, and YRF Thugs Publicity Continues

There is one really big story, but so long as I am covering things, I might as well cover the little stories too.

RK Studios Sale

Some background.  Raj Kapoor built RK studios back in the 1950s.  It is one of the 3 oldest studio lots in Bombay, the others being Mehboob Studios and Filmalaya.  These old studios were built off in unbuilt land in the suburbs, the old stars built or bought houses near by for the ease of work, once upon a time it was full of open land and cheap housing.  It wasn’t just stars who lived up there, technicians and character actors built houses up there too.  The Studios were the nexus of a little village of filmfolk.

RK Studios in particular, Raj Kapoor loved to use it to host parties along with shooting films.  He (and Nargis) also practically lived there for several years, sleeping in his office out building.  The RK Studios Holi parties were legendary, an annual event that brought together everyone of the Indian film industry in one joyous gathering.

Image result for RK studio holi

(They’d always set up a big tank to dunk people in.  But it was also famous as the Holi party where a woman would never be disrespected or molested, an event where all genders and all ages could have fun together)

Films need a lot of space to be made, owning your own studio means that you always have the space available for your own films.  And it also means that, when you aren’t using it, you can rent it out to the many other banners who don’t have their own studio space.  In the golden years, RK Studios was where Raj Kapoor filmed his movies, planned his movies, everything.  And at the same time, it was where he got income to help support them by renting out the space to other banners.

After Raj’s death, there were few original films made by the RK Studios banner.  But that didn’t mean the studio wasn’t active.  Raj’s three sons, Randhir and Rishi and Rajiv, went to their offices and coordinated rentals and rights of old films and survived on their father’s legacy.  RK Studios was never really modernized, some of the spaces were updated but there was never the massive structural improvements that were needed to bring it into the 2000th century.

Which didn’t really matter, because for whatever reason the standards for Bombay film studios, the physical facilities, are extremely low.  Madras is the state of the art filming location in India, the place where air conditioning, bathrooms, comfortable make-up rooms, are all expected and provided.  Since the 1950s and 60s, many Hindi films have been made there as well as films in every southern language partly because the facilities are so superior.  Meanwhile, in Bombay, vanity vans have become accepted on studio lots because the facilities are so inferior.  The exception to this being Yash Raj Studios, which has a “no vanity vans” policy, and facilities built in the 1990s.

(I don’t know which studio this is, but you get the idea.  Canteens with wooden tables, open to the air, terrible bathrooms, crowded dark spaces, it’s the same at all the studios)

So RK Studios kept limping along.  Providing small steady income to the family.  But the dream was always to find someone who could revive the banner, make it not just a physical location with dreams of the past, but bring it into the future.  Ranbir Kapoor was the only possible heir, the only son in his generation.  The 3 daughters were, of course, not considered.  Girls can’t run studios (except Ekta Kapoor, Devika Rani, all the others…..).  When Ranbir was brought to India to be launched, much was made of his American “film” “degree”, his training under Bhansali before the launch, an in interviews he and his family dropped hints implying that he was their hope for the future, he would have a grand launch and then start working on his own films and revive the studio.

But, from that side of things, Ranbir has been a disaster.  His film career has been filled with good performances, but few box office successes.  Topped last year with Jagga Jasoos, his first film as a producer, which was not just massively unsuccessful, but was a massive disaster during filming.  Ranbir proved himself incapable of being a good producer, and a good businessman.

And also last year, RK Studios suffered a fire, damaging the older parts.  Along with the loss of the buildings, they lost all of the priceless artifacts of the golden era.  Literally priceless, which I assume means they were not insured, because there would be no insurance amount that would be able to make up for them.

And now, Rishi has announced that they are selling the studio (full story in the Mumbai Mirror along with great background, read it here).  But not just because of the fire:

For a while, we did juggle with the idea of renovating the place with state-of-the-art technology. However, in reality it isn’t always possible for a phoenix to rise from the ashes. We Kapoors are very emotional lot but then…” he lapsed into silence.

Recovering his composure, he explained, “The investment in rebuilding the studio would just not have yielded sufficient revenue to keep it going. Believe me, we had to take the larger picture into account and take a level-headed decision. Even before the fire, for years R. K. Studio had become a huge white elephant, toting up losses. The few bookings we would get from films, TV serials and ad shoots would expect free parking space, air-conditioning and discounts.

We brothers are strongly bonded. But who knows about our children and grand-children? What if differences crop up in the next generation? The studio would only end up in litigation as so many industrial and textile estates have. There would be family differences and only lawyers would end up charging heavy sums of fee. Do you think my father would have liked to see his labour of love becoming the subject of courtroom proceedings?

True, there are so many wonderful memories there, so much film history, but that would be like clutching on to straws in the wind.

If he [Ranbir] has the money, let him buy it from us then. But seriously, that’s a silly question. It’s Ranbir’s time to concentrate on his career, Sanju has validated him as a commercially successful actor. [The sale will happen] in two days, two months, two years, we have no timelines….We had to place a stone on our hearts. Chhati pe patthar rakkhar, soch samajh kar decision liya hai.


It took me a while to write this post because I was out of town, at my family house with my parents.  But on the other hand, that was also the perfect preparation to write this post.  Our house has been in our family for 3 generations, and with every generation shift, there is that question of whether we will be able to keep it, whether it will mean as much to the next generation as it did to the last.  I am the 4th, and it means a lot to me, but that doesn’t matter if it is meaningless to the others of my generation.  Or if it is meaningless to the fifth generation, my little cousins.

For the Kapoors, the next generation is Kareena, Karisma, Riddhima, and Ranbir.  And after that, Karisma’s two children and Taimur and Riddhima’s two children.  Rishi and Randhir and Rajiv, they grew up in the golden age of RK Studios.  When it was more than just a place and a few old buildings, when it was the heart of the film industry.  That’s why they love it, that’s why they keep it close to their hearts.  Kareena and Karisma and Riddhima and Ranbir, they grew up when it was the tired old studio, fit only for TV shows and c-level films, the place with offices where they visited their fathers, ran in and out of the corridors, but no more than that.  No magic there.  It is sad, but it is not heartbreaking.  Kareena’s quote sums it up:

I don’t know how far what is actually happening. In fact, I have been quite under the weather and I haven’t even met my father in the last four or five days… But of course, we have all grown up walking around in those corridors. I think it’s probably something that the family has decided, so it’s upto my fathers, his brothers and up to them… If that’s what they have decided, so be it.

So far as her generation is concerned, the studio belongs to their fathers and uncles, nothing to do with them.



Kriti’s Career is in Trouble

I love Kriti!  Am I the only one?  Her next film has been delayed, the one that looked so good, Arjun Patiala with Diljit.  Supposedly because the producer is also producing Stree and didn’t want competition.  (story here)

So Kriti and Diljit are taking a backseat to Rajkummar and Shraddha.  Hopefully this isn’t a major set-back, but it does make me worried about her because it means she won’t get a good follow-up to Bareilly Ki Barfi for well over a year after it comes out, which might be far too long for an audience to remember her.



Rishi’s Next Also Delayed

Rumors are flying that it is because he can’t open a movie and the director has no faith, the official line is that it needs more post-production work.  But, combined with the Helicopter Eela delay and the Arjun Patiala delay, I think it’s just that people are announcing release dates too soon.  Everyone is announcing the earliest possible date, and then if one little thing goes wrong, they have to move it.  At some point the advantage of grabbing the soonest release date possible is going to be balanced by the disadvantage of all this bad press when you can’t make the deadline. (story here)


Thugs of Hindostan is still “Big big BIG”

Of course, Yash Raj is never going to miss its deadline.  They will announce ludicrously far out to make sure they have enough time, and then leave the film sitting in the cans even if it is ready early.  Because they have a plan, a whole long plan, to release it in the best way possible. (story here)

Today’s story is a double example of that.  First, the reveal that YFX, their in house FX studio, was founded 2 years ago just for Thugs.  That’s how far in advance they plan these things.  And second, that the “source” on this story must have used “big” every third word.  There is a message to this campaign and they don’t want us to miss it.  Get excited!  This is going to be the biggest film India has ever seen and you can’t afford to miss it!

Thugs Of Hindostan is not just the biggest film for YRF, it is the biggest film of Bollywood. No one knows this but Aditya Chopra started working on the visual effects of Thugs with his director Viktor Acharya, two years back! Since the day Adi, Viktor and superstar Aamir Khan decided that they would collaborate on Thugs of Hindostan, they decided that they would make Thugs the biggest visual extravaganza of all time. Adi launched YRF’s VFX company called YFX in 2016 to start working on Thugs!” says a production source.

Thugs is the biggest festive release of all time. It sees two of the biggest icons of Hindi cinema Amitabh Bachchan and Aamir Khan come together for the first time ever. It has superstar Katrina Kaif and has Fatima Sana Shaikh (of Dangal fame). Viktor’s last film Dhoom 3 broke box office records worldwide. The anticipation is huge from Thugs Of Hindostan and the team wants the film to be an immersive visual experience, a total paisa vasool larger-than-life cinema! The scale that they are chasing to have could have only been possible if they started work two years before the release. Given the massive visual scale of Thugs, the team could only have managed to catch the deadline of asset releases if they planned way in advance. The team started editing the footage from the day the shoot started. It will be a massive cinema experience for audiences across the globe

YFX was formed to do the pre-visualization work for Thugs but in the interim, the company worked on Sultan and Tiger Zinda Hai. Both boasted of high-value visual effects and YFX achieved global standards. The success of Sultan and Tiger Zinda Hai gave confidence to Adi that YFX could take on the mammoth task they had at hand with Thugs. It will be a visual event like never before in Indian cinema,

39 thoughts on “News Round-Up: RK Studios Sale, Kriti and Rishi Both Have Films Postponed, and YRF Thugs Publicity Continues

  1. `
    Does anybody know the plot of Thugs Of Hindostan? All I hear about is the hype, but I realize I have no idea how they are going to play the story.


    • It’s officially based on a Victorian British novel which I am slowly fighting my way through, but based on what I have read so far and the casting, it’s going to be very loosely based on it.

      During the breakdown of the princely states and the existing structure of Indian society in the early days of colonialism, there were gangs that roamed all over Indian, massacring travelers and burying their bodies and taking their wealth. Because there was no overall infrastructure (thanks to the British working away at it), these deaths went unnoticed, they lived in one territory and were traveling through another and there was no connection. A couple of British officers started investigating and claimed to have discovered a massive secret society that spread through out India of “Thuggees”, bandits who killed men women and children and took their money, and saw it as a tribute to Kali. There was evidence of these deaths, but it is unclear how much of the “secret society that worships death” was just Orientalist imagination run rampant or was true. Certainly there were a lot of bandit groups and a lot of terrible deaths of travelers.

      The novel follows a man who was adopted by the leader of a Thug group after his family was massacred. He blocked out that memory and lived a happy childhood with the leader of the group in his home village. As a teenager, he started to suspect that something odd was happening and was eventually let in on the secret and taken off on a hunting trip with his father and friends. He was taught how to kill and how to lie and they slowly made their way up and down India finding victims and tricking and kiling them. I stopped reading just as he rescued an abused wife and married her and took her back to his home village, had a son, and was living a happy life for a few years until it was time for the next hunting trip. It is heavily foreshadowed that he will eventually end up killing his own biological sister, finally remember his past when it is too late, be overcome with grief and guilt, and turn himself in to the British and give this confession. But I’ve got another half a book to read before I get there.

      In theory, Amitabh could be the adoptive father, Aamir the son, and Katrina and Fatima the love interest and second generation respectively. But I highly doubt it will be even that close to the book. More likely it will just be an adventure store about this roving band of bandits in Victorian India.

      On Mon, Aug 27, 2018 at 9:17 AM dontcallitbollywood wrote:



  2. It’s always sad when a historic place get distructed, but I have a feeling that we, random people in internet, are more sad than Kapoor family. Kareena didn’t even know about it and she is like: oh well, let them sell it. And, I think if Rishi and his brothers really cared for this studio, they wouldn’t neglected it so much. I understand that now it would cost a lot of money to renovate it, but they should have cared about this place years ago, modernized it, keep it in good state.


      • This is what happens when too many people are heirs. No one person wants to take responsibility if others aren’t. Even if they put in a lot of time and hard work and money alone, the others will be back very quickly to get their part of the profits. It’s just not worth it.

        I don’t think it was as easy as turning over the studio to Ranbir either. Rishi said Ranbir can buy it if he wants so it’s not like they were ready to let him inherit it for free. Why would anyone else give up their part of the ownership and just give it all to Ranbir? Rishi would be okay with it but why would the other siblings be fine with it? Selling it means guys like Randhir, who were never successful, will have a good amount of money now to live out their retirement comfortably.


        • At least between the 3 brothers there are only a few heirs in the next generation, Kareena and Karisma and Ranbir and Riddhima. I assume, with that group, if one of them had taken the lead the others would fall in line. Actually, I wonder if the women were even considered at all? Rishi and Randhir and Rajiv have two sisters, they were not mentioned at all as being consulted with this decision, Rishi specifically talked about the three brothers. If it’s a straight patriarchal inheritance, then it really would just have been Ranbir who seems to have not indicated enough interest for his father to want to keep it in the family.

          Or maybe it’s a matter of Randhir not being willing to step back and hand his daughter’s inheritance over to his nephew. If they split the proceeds, he can give his 3rd to his daughters. Not to mention Rajiv not having any children at all so he might as well sell and enjoy the money now. If Ranbir purchases the studio, then he will still be running it as always expected but without any resentment from the rest of the family.

          So, what you just said 🙂


          • I’m guessing Ranbir doesn’t have the money to buy it outright. I’m basing this just on SRK trying to purchase a studio for the last few years. At one point, he was bidding on Mehboob Studios but stepped back and has talked about it being a shattered dream because he can’t justify the costs. Land has gotten too expensive and even if you manage to keep the studio booked fully, you wouldn’t be out of the red for 20 years.

            If even SRK can’t take the plunge, there’s no way Ranbir would be able to. He would not have the finances. He can’t even predict where his own career prospects would be 10 years from now to take on something so massive.


          • Yeah, and I can’t imagine any bank giving him a loan based on his financial management history. I’m betting on it going to housing developers who turn it into luxury condos and make back their investment right away that way. Plus, it seems far easier to get real estate loans than film loans.


      • Yes, a relief…at least a financial one…

        Sorry (no, not really), since long I had the feeling that they don’t care for anything related to the father. I won’t blame them…but why e v e r y t h i n g had it to be burnt down?


      • There was the advantage with the last generation that it was shared between 3 brothers. Mostly what they shared was the disappointment, Randhir and Rishi and Rajiv all tried to be the director/producer/actor their father was and just couldn’t do it. But you can’t say “it’s all Randhir’s fault”, because Rishi and Rajiv failed too, and vice versa.

        But with the next generation, since the girls weren’t considered at all, it all fell on Ranbir and that’s a lot to live up to. Interesting to compare it with Shashi’s kids, who were all given equal chances regardless of gender and no specific expectations, and it was the daughter who ended up carrying the legacy forward, while the boys were able to flourish in their chosen other fields. I’m sticking with my feeling that Kareena has the soundest business head and hardest business heart of the Kapoors, if she had been brought into the studio and trained for it as a teenager, this could be a very different story today.

        Liked by 1 person

    • I don’t know if they could have modernized it. It sounds like one of those situations where once you start the construction, you will rapidly discover that it has to be torn down and then built up again from the ground up. They could have taken out a loan, but it would have taken decades to pay off. The initial reports after the fire were that they were planning to rebuild in a more modern way, but I am going to assume that once they started getting estimates, they realized the insurance money would barely cover it. Raj had a tendency of making big profits, and then pouring it all into his next film. He never really updated the studio, and once he died, there was no money left to cover it. Enough to get by day to day, but not for a big infrastructure investment.

      Kareena’s comment was odd, but then, it also reads like her father never tried to bring her into it. It was his studio and his business, she never had an office there, was never invited in for business conversations (the way Ranbir did and was).


  3. Thugs & YashRaj…no interest in that movie…not the slightest…and I even don’t know why…

    RK Studios… if one can’t harbour a grudge openly (against Raj Kapoor), one will do it in other ways…even after the death…neither Raj’s kids nor his grand kids have any interest in the studios…even less when it costs money (instead of giving)…btw, I doubt that the fire happened accidentally…
    I’m happy that Shashi married Jennifer and thus focussed on other things…


    • I was thinking, perhaps if Raj was a better father and mentor, his sons would be in a stronger position today and better able to carry the studio forward and pass it on to the next generation. Or perhaps simply lived longer, been able to pass on his knowledge.


      • Even the best mentoring won’t help if the talent and motivation is not there. The Kapoors come across like typical rich kids who are used to getting things easily and never needed or wanted to work that hard. Even Ranbir doesn’t seem to have a lot of drive. He just does whatever makes him happy and is unbothered when a movie like Jagga Jasoos takes years to make with constant delays. I can’t see an outsider ever functioning in that way. Who can even believe he’s been hanging around BW for 10 years now? He has very little to show for it.


    • Yeah, that’s my reaction! I’ll still see it in theaters, but I suspect that there won’t be much depth that will encourage re-watching. I felt the same way about Sultan, and Tiger Zinda Hai. They’ve perfected the empty spectacle kind of film that you absolute MUST see in theaters, but don’t really have an urge to rewatch.

      Or, maybe they will surprise me. This is the exact same stuff people were saying about Sholay, it would just be empty spectacle and never work, the promotions were too big for the film to live up to the hype. And then of course it did.


      • But the director here is Victor. I mean…

        Aamir also gets unfair hype as some genius who fixes every movie he’s in which is just not true. What happened to Dhoom 3 then? It was a lot more pointless than Sultan and Tiger. Literally one of the worst movies ever and bad even for a Dhoom film considering the first two were so much better. Dhoom 2 was very dumb but at least it held your interest and the actors fit the parts.


        • I love Victor for Tashaan. Which was a legitimately thought provoking weird movie. And also made no money. So I can see why he has rubbed down his rough edges since then, and without the weird thought provoking touches, you are just left with “big and pretty”.


        • It is dopey! It’s the big friendly dog that doesn’t realize it is too big to sit on your lap of movies. A bit exhausting if you spend too much time with it, but fun in small doses.


  4. I am definitely not looking forward for Thugs, because I’ve hated Aamir-Yrf movies. I think Aamir does them because he wants to keep working but not be super-invested. And he trusts Adi Chopra to make a hit. And Dhoom 3 was so bad, I have no hopes for this one.
    RK Studio – I am not surprised. Needs someone like AdiC,KJo or SidRoyKapur to carry off something like that. Someone who is primarily a filmmaker/producer and the Kapoor family has none. Ranbir probably bailed out on it too. As for Kareena, her response is so typical – she has always appeared lazy and someone who wouldn’t stretch herself.


    • I don’t know why Ranbir was ever considered as a producer. He’s a decent actor and he definitely has star charisma, but he’s never shown any organization or drive or anything else you would need for producing.

      On Mon, Aug 27, 2018 at 3:28 PM dontcallitbollywood wrote:



      • Completely idle speculation here. I wonder if Ranbir has ADHD. Symptoms of adult ADHD can look like the types of traits we talk about here, and that I’ve heard him say, and people say about him, in interviews. I wonder whether he or his family would be open to seeking a neuro-cognitive diagnosis, and/or open to meds to treat it. I know a couple of people whose lives have been turned around by diagnosis/treatment of adult ADHD.


        • His school years could also be ADHD related. Or, his completely horrible home life. Either way, a lot of acting out in class, inability to focus, etc. etc. And also, either way, his being Rishi Kapoor’s son was a bit of a curse. He talked about how his teachers would be charmed and let things skate along instead of addressing them. If it was ADHD, better for it to have been recognized back then. Or better for him to have been thrown into intensive therapy for his horrible home life.

          Is ADHD genetic? Because the Kapoors have a habit of self-medicating with alcohol. Maybe that’s what it is for? Or, it could be nurture instead of nature, since they also all grew up with terrible parents and then became terrible parents and passed it on to the next generation.

          On Tue, Aug 28, 2018 at 9:24 AM dontcallitbollywood wrote:



          • I have ADHD, my husband has it and so does my son and yes, it’s genetic and yes there’s evidence that people with ADHD have a higher risk of substance abuse. However, having ADHD is not a pass for being an a-hole and I know many people with ADHD who manage to be productive adults. Lots of entrepreneurs and creative people. So yes, the Kapoors may have an issue with ADHD that contributes to their alcoholism (and their acting talent) but it’s not an excuse for jerky behavior.


          • My mother, a mental health professional, has raised me with the life lesson of “there is no cure for being a jerk”. Some people are just jerks, and no amount of medication or talk therapy is going to change that.

            Have I told you the thing that I found most jerky about Raj Kapoor? Not the way he treated Nargis and then was made at her for leaving him, but a professional thing. Sometimes while directing, he would get drunk and then come off with these really mean nasty criticisms of his actors. Not like bad language, but like picking apart at their weaknesses until they just felt like dirt. And then he would come in the next day, explain that he was drunk, so sorry, hope they understand. That is jerky enough, but what was really bad was HE WASN’T ACTUALLY DRUNK!!!! He was such a brilliant actor that he could perfectly fain all the symptoms of getting drunker and drunker until it lead up to his long nasty speeches and then everyone had to forgive him the next day. But really he just wanted to say something super nasty, so he would set about faking drunkenness so he could get away with it. One of the workers on his set told Madhu Jain about this when she was writing her books, he noticed that the amount of alcohol Raj was drinking wasn’t nearly enough to get him actually drunk, and it always seemed to happen on days when he was mad at his cast and crew anyway.

            On Tue, Aug 28, 2018 at 11:23 AM dontcallitbollywood wrote:



          • Oh my gosh, reading Rishi’s memoir, his childhood was so much worse than Ranbir’s. They would hide when they heard his father coming home in the middle of the night. And that is his only memory of his father from his early childhood. Raj was just never around, except for these terrifying 2am/3am crashes and shouts. And then as a teenager, suddenly he was expected to be an actor in his father’s films and to always call him “Sir” on set. Rishi is no peach as a father, but he talks about how he has really tried to be better than his own father, to spend time with his kids and build a connection with them, and support them instead of pressuring them.

            And then there’s Raj himself, who lost two siblings at age 7 and whose own father went around to producers warning them off hiring his son because Raj was no good and untalented. And who had to practically raise his two youngest brothers because their father was never around.

            If Ranbir is so skittish about marriage and fatherhood because of all of this stuff, I really can’t blame him! But, on the other hand, he can still manage to not be a jerk if he really really tries, I am sure.

            Bringing this back to RK studios, if Rishi and his brothers have mixed feelings about their father’s legacy, and their children have mixed feelings about THEIR father’s legacy, I can understand it and the desire to just sell the place off and take the money and start fresh.

            On Tue, Aug 28, 2018 at 11:34 AM dontcallitbollywood wrote:



          • Apparently there is a genetic component. I think most people can benefit from seeing a good therapist, horrible childhood or no. Hopefully if he has neuro-cognitive and/or mental health challenges, Deepika has hooked him up with some resources to get support. 🙂


  5. I’m not a fan of Aamir, so my initial enthusiasm for Thugs was 0. When I heard Katrina Kaif will be in this movie, I was sure I won’t watch it. And now when I read it has the same director as Dhoom 3, I think YRF should pay me to make me see this film.


    • But also the same director as Tashan!!! And Tashan was wonderful! At least, I think so.

      On Mon, Aug 27, 2018 at 4:24 PM dontcallitbollywood wrote:



  6. A little sad that the studio is going away but I understand the decision.
    I’m not sure if Kriti will make it to the top but I’m rooting for her nevertheless! I really enjoy watching her. Sad that her movie is being postponed. It seemed the most intriguing to me compared to her other upcoming projects. If it’s being postponed in favor for Stree then it’s kind of interesting that she did a promotional song for it. I wonder if it was always planned or if it was a last minute thing.
    The setting of Thugs actually seems really interesting to me but the more I hear about how “BIG” it is, the more annoyed I get. The hype (or really the idea that Aamir is some genius savior of Hindi cinema) is really fatiguing.


    • I hadn’t watched the promo song until just now. It really builds Kriti up! On the other hand, Diljit’s last movie (Soorma) was a big flop. So maybe they are recalculating things? Truing to make Kriti more of a draw and give the movie a big release instead of counting on Diljit’s star power to carry it?


  7. Sad news about RK studios. I hope the family is comforted by the cash and the relief of having made a tough decision and acted on it.

    So interesting that YashRaj is going into VFX. I had no idea. How much of a head start does Red Chillies VFX have on them? Has YR been doing this for years, growing this side of the business?


    • According to the press, they only started YFX in 2016 in preparation for Thugs. I’ll be curious to see the end credits and find out how much was actually done in house versus through other companies.

      On Tue, Aug 28, 2018 at 9:28 AM dontcallitbollywood wrote:



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